[Event "San Antonio"] [Site "San Antonio"] [Date "1972.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Petrosian, Tigran V"] [Black "Larsen, Bent"] [Result "1-0"] [ECO "A81"] [WhiteElo "2645"] [BlackElo "2625"] [Annotator "Petrosian"] [PlyCount "121"] [EventDate "1972.??.??"] [EventType "tourn"] [EventRounds "15"] [EventCountry "USA"] [EventCategory "11"] [Source "Quality Chess"] [SourceDate "2015.08.07"] {This game was played at a stage when both opponents were out to improve their standings in the tournament. Before the start of play I was tormented by uncertainty; it was exceedingly important to guess Larsen's frame of mind. Would he be in a mood foran uncompromising struggle? This was not an idle question, and my choice of first move depended on it. You see, after 1.c4 which I often play, either 1. .... c5 or 1. .... g6 would enable Black to avoid showing his hand for the time bing. Afer 1.d4 you can "look into your oppnent's heart" much sooner. I should also mention that over a long stretch of years, my games with Larsen had had nothing but decisive results. It was only our last two encounters that had ended in draws, showing that Larsen too can be circumspect when he wants.} 1. d4 e6 {What's this? An invitation to the French? The 3.Nd2 line, even? "No" I thought. "On 2.e4 Larsen will play 2. .... c5 offering to go into a Sicilian or a form of Benoni. but if 2.Nf3 what then? Not a Dutch, surely? That would be fine by me"} 2. Nf3 f5 {So it is a Dutch Defence. One of the openings which, just just lke may masters, I was very happy to play on the white side.} 3. g3 Nf6 4. Bg2 { Diagram [#]} b5 $5 {When the Danish Grandmaster made this move, Gligoric was passing by our table. Though always self-possessed, Svetosvar could barely stop himself from bursting out laughting. The move selected by Larsen does indeed look outlandish. Running ahead somewhat, I may say that the Dane's unusual continuation set me problems that I didnt entirely manage to handle over the board. So if I did feel happy, it was not to be for all that long.} 5. Ne5 c6 6. Nd2 {It looks as if Black will be swiftly punished. White just needs to carry out e2-e4, and whatever Black does with his f-pawn - whether he exchanges on e4 himself or accords the right of exchanging the f- and e-pawns to White - his position will not be a pleasant sight.} Qb6 ({Clearly Larsen is forcing some tactical play on his opponent. It emerge that carrying out e2-e4 is not so simple! On} 6... Qb6 7. c3 {Black will play} Bb7 8. e4 c5 {. In that case, admittedly, after} 9. dxc5 Bxc5 10. O-O {or 9.d5 White appears to obtain a good position from his temporary or long-tem pawn sacrifice. However, after quite a long think, I took a different decision.} (10. Qe2)) 7. e4 Qxd4 8. Nef3 Qc5 9. exf5 Qxf5 10. O-O {Diagram [#] For the sacrificed pawn, White has a significant lead in development. If there were an object to attack in the opposing camp, he coud count on extracting real gains from the undeveloped state of the black pieces. But unfortunatly, no vulnerable weaknesses are to be seen. All that is certain is that the black queen will have to run about a little, also, the situation of the rook on a8 vis-a-vis the bishop on g2 is not something to boost Black's confidence.} Nd5 {An excellent move! Here the knight plays a crucial role in the defence. At the same time, the queen's road home is cleared.} 11. Nd4 Qf7 12. N2f3 Qh5 $1 13. Re1 Be7 14. Re5 Qf7 15. Re2 O-O 16. Ne5 Qh5 ({In the event of} 16... Qe8 {Black would have to reckon with 17.Nxb5, but now, after a preliminary 17.Bh3 Qe8 the capture 18.Nxb5 would simply be met by 18. .... Rxf3. The queen continues to stroll around fearlessly. It was just this fearlessness, this impunity, that made me feel that White's initiative woud peter out sometime; and I was a pawn down. At this point, fortunately, I remembered an old truth; many a player, after sacrificing pawn, perishe through playing like someone who has lost a pawn, not someone who has parted with it deliberately As long as Black has not finished his queenside development, the initiative is with White..}) 17. f4 Bc5 18. Kh1 Bb7 ({It was worth giving serious attention o } 18... Bxd4 19. Bf3 Qe8 20. Qxd4 Bb7 {with the aim of playing .... c6-c5 sortly, ensuring an exchange of light-squared bishops.}) 19. Ndf3 Bb6 {Black has come to believe in the absolute invulnerability of his position, and counts on achieving c6-c5 without hurrying and without losing any positional ground, whereas if he hard parted with his dark-squared bishop a move earlier, this would surely have been a distinct concession.} 20. a4 a6 $2 {Diagram [#]} ({If Black's previous move was merely dubious and I did't make so bold as to give it a question mark, this one is downright bad. Black could simply have played} 20... b4 {with no worries for the moment about} 21. a5 Bc7 22. a6 { on account of} Bxa6) 21. c4 $1 Nf6 ({It turns out that Black's 2. .... a6 has opened up a noticeable breach in his position. After} 21... bxc4 22. Nxc4 { the extremely unpleasant threat of} -- 23. Qb3 {rears it head.}) 22. Ng5 bxa4 23. Bf3 Qe8 24. Be3 {At this point White had a number of good continuations, but he was already pressed for time. As often happens in this kind of situation, preference was given to a "solid" plan.} Bxe3 25. Rxe3 h6 {At any price now, Black wants to throw back the white pieces that have been standing menacingly over him.} 26. Ne4 Nxe4 27. Bxe4 d5 {Diagram [#]} 28. Bg2 $1 ({ Missing an excellent chance. Of course, I considered the possibiity of utilizing the b1-h7 diagonal. The arrival of the white queen at h7 is a wholly realistic prospect and would obviously be fatal for Black. But how is this to be achieved? It looks very tempting to play} 28. Bb1 {or 28.Bc2 (perhaps with Be4-g6 inserted first) I confess that I imagined Blck could defend himself by 28. .... Nd7 with relatively little pain, but somehow it never entered my head that White doesn't have to place his queen in front of the bishop. Setting up the battery the other wayround with the bishop in front of the queen, is also strong}) (28. Bg6 Qe7 ({or} 28... Qd8) 29. Qc2 { About 8-10 moves earlier, when I was carefully scrutinising some tactical chances, that were not so obvious, I felt that such an oversight would not have been likely. But now that matters were in good shape all round, a genuinely good continuation was missed. I may add that I wasn't sure that the bishop should be withdrawn to the g2 square, it bothered me that in some lines the back rank would be badly protected.}) 28... Nd7 29. Rxa4 c5 ({The position is quietly simplifying, and after} 29... Nxe5 30. Rxe5 {there would be reason to suppose that White had enough compensation for the pawn; but no more. In that case the result most to be expected would be a draw. But the calm that is setting in does not suit Larsen, he creates new tension, new centres of conflict.}) 30. cxd5 Nb6 31. Ra5 Nxd5 {Black has acivated his knight and one thing that made this possible was the fact that the knight advanced to the centre with gains of tempi - by attacking the white rooks. In such a situation it pays the other side to regai the tempi by movig the attacked pieces in such a way as to create counter-threats. The move 31.Ra5 was obvious, but now where should the other rook go?} 32. Rb3 {Diagram [#]} Rd8 { Here my opponent was unlucky. I have already said that when I retreated my bishop to g2. I couldn't help feeling that trouble on the back rank might arise. For that very reason, when playng my 50th move, I specifically took into account the tactical skirmish that now ensues.} 33. Rxb7 Ne3 34. Qe2 Rd1+ 35. Qxd1 Nxd1 36. Rxa6 {One move more and the second rook will land on the seventh rank - an event fraught with lethal dangers for Black.} Ne3 ({The following line also fails to save him} 36... Qd8 37. Raa7 Nf2+ 38. Kg1 Qd1+ 39. Bf1 Nh3+ 40. Kg2 {and White wins.}) 37. Raa7 Nf5 38. g4 Qd8 39. h3 ({There was an immediate win with} 39. Bh3 {but I considered I was winning (or almost winning) in a different way,and wasn't going to use up my remaining seconds looking for an alternative.}) 39... Qd1+ ({With White's flag dangling, there was much more venom in} 39... Qd2 {with the threat of .... Qc1+, .... Qxf4+ and ....... Qxe5 I had prepared to reply} 40. Nf3 {reckoning that after} Qc1+ {with the time control passed, the continuation} 41. Ng1 Ng3+ 42. Kh2 {would at least guarantee White draw.}) 40. Kh2 Qd4 41. Ng6 {Diagram [#]} Ne3 ({ The adjourned position is nor rich in possibilities for Black. The most obvious move, and the one Larsen sealed -41.... Ne3 - leads to an endgame that is hopeless for him. A better move was} 41... Rd8 {then after} 42. gxf5 exf5 43. b3 $1 {(the g7-pawn won't run away, but the White b-pawn needs to be secured against the ambitions of the black rook)} h5 44. Rxg7+ Qxg7 45. Rxg7+ Kxg7 46. Ne5 h4 $1 {it wouldn't be simple for White to convert his advantage into a win.}) 42. Rxg7+ Qxg7 43. Rxg7+ Kxg7 44. Nxf8 Kxf8 45. Bf3 {Sooner or later White will set up two passed pawns on the kingside, and win.} ({Suppose Black tries to improve his lot by exchanging the queenside pawns, for example with} 45. Bf3 Nc4 46. b3 Nd2 47. Bd1 Ke7 48. Kg2 c4 {then White will play} 49. b4 {to aoid simplification. He won't be afraid to give up his bishop for Black's passed pawn if necessary, as he will win with his own widely separated passed pawns - against which a knight is well known to be a poor defender.}) 45... h5 $1 ({Diagram [#] This move deserves an exclamation mark not because it is capable of altering the result of the game, which already seems predeermined. no - the move simply represents a practical chance to throw the opponent (and the position) off balance. While this game was still unfinished, I already had two adjourned games - with Mecking and Saidy - and both positions were complex. As it somehow turned out, it was those positions - which were virtually of a middegame character - that basically absorbed my attention. Moreover, I felt that whatever type of endgame arose in my game with Larsen, I would be able to cope with it over the board. For these reasons, the move} 45... h5 {almost took me by surprise. Of course the natural reaction to is} 46. Kg3 {gladly assenting to an exchange of the h- and g-pawns. The exchange would free White from the constant threat of being left with a bishop and a h-pawn, but without the full point on the tournament chart - seeing that the queening square id the "wrong colour". At the board, however, it seemed to me that after} hxg4 47. hxg4 Nc4 48. b3 Nd6 49. Be2 {here would be technical difficulties ahead. And yet as Larsen afterwards showed, White could win without trouble by penetrating with his king along the h-file.}) 46. g5 $2 h4 $1 47. Kg1 e5 48. fxe5 Nc4 49. Kf2 Nxe5 ({This, of course, is better than} 49... Nxb2 50. Ke3) 50. Be4 Kg7 51. b3 Nf7 52. g6 {Diagram [#]} Ng5 $4 ({ With} 52... Ne5 53. Ke3 Nxg6 54. Bxg6 {Black would hae reached a king and pawn ending in which White would sadly come to see that whichever pawn he went for - the c-pawn or the h-pawn - Black could save himself by a counter-attack on the other flank. Instead, Larsen commits a simply astounding oversight!}) 53. Bf5 Kf6 54. Ke3 {The bishop cannot be taken, and Black could already resign. Larsen does so after several more moves.} Ne6 55. Bxe6 Kxe6 56. Ke4 Kf6 { Diagram [#]} 57. Kd5 Kxg6 58. Kxc5 Kf5 59. b4 Kf4 60. b5 Kg3 61. b6 1-0 [Event "Berlin m"] [Site "Berlin"] [Date "1871.04.07"] [Round "1"] [White "Anderssen, Adolf"] [Black "Zukertort, Johannes Hermann"] [Result "1-0"] [ECO "C52"] [Annotator "Zukertort"] [PlyCount "117"] [EventDate "1871.04.07"] [EventType "match"] [EventRounds "7"] [EventCountry "GER"] [Source "New in Chess"] [SourceDate "2001.11.25"] 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bc4 Bc5 4. b4 Bxb4 5. c3 Ba5 6. d4 exd4 7. O-O dxc3 8. Qb3 Qf6 9. e5 Qg6 10. Nxc3 Nge7 11. Ne2 b5 12. Bd3 Qe6 13. Qb2 Ng6 14. Nf4 Qe7 15. Nd5 ({Stronger than} 15. e6 Nxf4 16. Qxg7 Rf8 17. Bxf4 fxe6 18. Qg4 Bb7 19. Bxb5 O-O-O) 15... Qc5 {A mistake that subsequently leads to the loss of the queen.} 16. Be4 O-O 17. Be3 {White plays logically for the win of the enemy queen; the game enters a really interesting phase.} Qc4 18. Qb1 Bc3 19. Rc1 b4 {With an attack on the rook, White cuts off the line of retreat for the black queen. Here also 20.a3 came into consideration.} 20. Nxc7 Rb8 21. Nd2 Qe2 22. Bf3 {Diagram [#]} Qxe3 {Black gives up his queen for the best possible price.} 23. fxe3 Bxd2 24. Nd5 ({Since the exchange cannot be saved -} 24. Rd1 Bxe3+ 25. Kh1 Bd4 26. Bxc6 Bxa1 27. Bxd7 Bxe5 28. Bxc8 {snd Black has a good game - White brings a displaced piece back into play and protects the attacked pawn.}) 24... Bxc1 25. Qxc1 Ncxe5 26. Be2 Bb7 27. Qd2 a5 28. Rf1 Rbc8 29. Nf4 {In order to obtain any sort of attack White must exchange one of the two enemy knights.} Rc3 30. Nxg6 Nxg6 ({It is clear that} 30... fxg6 {may not be played - } 31. Rxf8+ Kxf8 32. Qd6+ {- on the other hand}) (30... hxg6 {was to be considered : on} 31. Qd4 {would then follow} f6) 31. Qxd7 Rxe3 32. Bc4 Ne5 33. Bxf7+ Nxf7 34. Qxb7 Ra3 {Diagram [#]} 35. Rf2 ({After the game a spectator maintained that in this way lets the win slip from his grasp and that} 35. Qd5 {was correct. This is not th case. Also on 35.Qd5 Black carries out , with a4 followed by b3 an exchage similar to that which occurs in the game.}) 35... b3 36. Qd5 ({Of course White must not take the pawn.} 36. axb3 Ra1+ 37. Rf1 Rxf1+ 38. Kxf1 Nd6+ {To a draw led}) (36. Rxf7 Rxf7 37. Qc8+ Rf8 38. Qc4+ Rf7 ( 38... Kh8 39. Qc5)) 36... bxa2 37. Rxa2 Rxa2 38. Qxa2 Re8 {The pawn cannot be defended.} 39. Qxa5 g5 40. h3 Re5 41. Qc7 Kg7 42. Kh2 h6 43. Kg3 h5 44. h4 Re3+ 45. Kf2 Re5 46. hxg5 Rxg5 47. g3 Kg6 48. Qc2+ Kg7 49. Qc3+ Kg6 50. Qd3+ Kg7 51. Kg2 Ne5 52. Qd4 Kh6 53. Qf4 Ng6 54. Qd2 h4 55. g4 Ne5 56. Kh3 ({So as} 56. Kh3 {on} Nxg4 {to win the rook by} 57. Kxh4) 56... Kg6 57. Qd6+ {Diagram [#]} Kf7 ( {A decisive mistake, with which Blck lets the draw slip from his grasp - he must play} 57... Kg7 {so as after} 58. Kxh4 Rxg4+ 59. Kh5 {to be able to play} Rg5+) 58. Kxh4 Rxg4+ 59. Kh5 1-0 [Event "New York Rice final"] [Site "New York"] [Date "1916.??.??"] [Round "3"] [White "Janowski, Dawid Markelowicz"] [Black "Capablanca, Jose Raul"] [Result "0-1"] [ECO "D10"] [Annotator "Uhlmann"] [PlyCount "92"] [EventDate "1916.02.07"] [EventType "tourn"] [EventRounds "5"] [EventCountry "USA"] [Source "Edition OLMS"] [SourceDate "1999.07.01"] 1. d4 Nf6 2. Nf3 d5 3. c4 c6 4. Nc3 Bf5 5. Qb3 Qb6 6. Qxb6 axb6 7. cxd5 Nxd5 8. Nxd5 cxd5 {An open file has appeared, but at the moment it plays no role, since all the entry squares can be easily defended.} 9. e3 Nc6 10. Bd2 Bd7 $1 { An interesting move from the future World Champion; he intends to advance with .... b5 and then manoeuvre the knight to c4 by .... Nc6-a5-c4, oblivious to this plan, White make some routine moves.} 11. Be2 e6 12. O-O Bd6 13. Rfc1 Ke7 14. Bc3 Rhc8 15. a3 $2 {The rook was tied to the defence of the a-pawn, but now there is a fresh weakness on b3.} Na5 $1 16. Nd2 f5 17. g3 b5 18. f3 Nc4 19. Bxc4 ({Somewhat better was} 19. Nxc4 bxc4 20. Bd1 {with the idea of Bc2, Re1 and e4.}) 19... bxc4 20. e4 Kf7 21. e5 $2 ({After this pointless action White gets into serious difficulties, he had to play} 21. exf5 exf5 22. f4 { followed by Nf3 and Ne5+ then the position should still be equal.}) 21... Be7 22. f4 b5 {Diagram [#] ASSESSMENT OF THE POSITION In this case we shall let Jose Raul Capablanca speak for himself. He outllined his plan as follows : "Black has already established his position; there is no longer any danger and his pieces are all well posted. It is therefore, time to evolve a plan of attack, which in this case will be to fix as many White pieces as possible on the queenside by threatening .....b5-b4, the somewhat to break up the kingside through .... g7-g5 and then, through the greater mobility of the rooks to occupy the open g-file. When this is accomplished Black will then be threatening White's position through the kingside, and at the same time will always maintain the threat of .... b5-b4. ("My Chess Career", 1920)} 23. Kf2 Ra4 24. Ke3 Rca8 {Now 25. .... b5-b4 is threatened.} 25. Rab1 h6 {Preparing ... g7-g5. White should now have restrained the advance with 26.h4. He could then occupy the open h-file arising after ... g7-g5.} 26. Nf3 g5 27. Ne1 Rg8 {At the right moment Black switches to the kingside, while the white pieces are all on the queenside.} 28. Kf3 (28. Ng2 {is better in order to be able to recapture with the knight after an exchange of pawns on f4. Now the knight will not be able to find a good square.}) 28... gxf4 29. gxf4 Raa8 30. Ng2 Rg4 31. Rg1 ({White has no time to dislodge the rook from g4, for instance} 31. Ne3 Rh4 32. Rh1 Rh3+ {followed by 33. .... Rg8.}) 31... Rag8 32. Be1 {With the idea of preparing to exchange the rooks after Bf2, h3 and Ne3.} b4 $1 ({The long awaited advance, at the moment as a pawn sacrifice, opens the way for the light-squared bishop into the white camp by .... Bd7-a4,-c2-e4. The bad bishop threatens White's defences with} 32... b4 33. Bxb4 Bxb4 34. axb4 {Black can play either} Rb8 {or .... h6-h5-h4-h3.}) 33. axb4 Ba4 34. Ra1 ({The c2 square cannot be defended.} 34. Rc1 Rxf4+ 35. Nxf4 Bg5) 34... Bc2 35. Bg3 Be4+ {In three moves the bishop that was blocked in by its own pawns has become a powerful attacking piece.} 36. Kf2 h5 37. Ra7 {The attempt to drum up some counterplay is doomed to failure as Black's attack cannot be stopped.} Bxg2 38. Rxg2 h4 39. Bxh4 ({The transposition} 39. Rxe7+ {also loses to} Kxe7 40. Bxh4+ Kf7 41. Rxg4 (41. Bg3 Rb8) 41... fxg4 42. Kg3 Rb8 43. Kxg4 Rxb4 {followed by} 44. -- Rxb2 {and the c-pawn cannot be stopped.}) 39... Rxg2+ 40. Kf3 Rxh2 41. Bxe7 ({Or} 41. Rxe7+ Kf8 42. Bf6 Rgh8 $1 43. Bxh8 {Forced, otherwise comes 43. ....R8h3#} Kxe7 { and Black wins.}) 41... Rh3+ ({The immediate} 41... Rxb2 {produces the same result.}) 42. Kf2 Rb3 43. Bg5+ Kg6 44. Re7 Rxb2+ 45. Kf3 Ra8 {now the switchback to the open a-file with a mating attack is decisive.} 46. Rxe6+ Kh7 0-1 [Event "St Petersburg m"] [Site "St Petersburg"] [Date "1893.??.??"] [Round "11"] [White "Tarrasch, Siegbert"] [Black "Chigorin, Mikhail"] [Result "1-0"] [ECO "C77"] [Annotator "Various"] [PlyCount "105"] [EventDate "1893.??.??"] [EventType "match"] [EventRounds "22"] [EventCountry "RUS"] [Source "New in Chess"] [SourceDate "1999.07.01"] 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 a6 4. Ba4 Nf6 5. Nc3 d6 6. Bxc6+ bxc6 7. d4 Nd7 8. dxe5 dxe5 {Interesting is Tarrasch's opinion on this opening system. "Now Black has a completely shattered pawn formation on the queen's flank, and in this respect is doubtless at a disadvantage. Thus far I can agree with all the commentators of this game. But these gentlemen have forgotten only to take into account the benefirts which Black obtains through the exchange on c6 (1) the open b-file, (2) the possession of the two bishops, (3) the immunity of Black's position from attack. For these reasons I prefer Black's game."} 9. Be3 Bd6 10. O-O O-O 11. Qd2 ({An inappropriate move which takes away d2 from the white knight. Better was the immediate} 11. Na4) 11... Qe7 12. Na4 { Applying a method of development known from similiar positions. Tarrasch wrote "If the disadvantage of Black's position, the shatterred pawn formation, is to be exploited at all, then it must happen as soon as possible, and this is the point of the following manouevre. White will advance the c-pawn possibly to c5. If he achieves this, he would certainly have the advantage. White has no other attacking plan and stands or falls with the queen side offensive."} Rb8 13. b3 Bb7 ({Chigorin points out another apparently more promising possibility. } 13... Nb6 {after which White would have to agree to the exchange} 14. Nxb6 cxb6 {repairing the damage to Black's pawn structure. The fact of the matter is that}) (13... Nb6 14. Nb2 c5 15. c4 Bb7 16. Qc2 f5 {or even at once 14. .... f5 would give Black a threatening initiative.}) 14. c4 Rbd8 ({Even here, Black might have opened the diagonal for his bishop with the move} 14... f5 $1 { The continuation chosen by Chigorin allows White to consolidate his position in the centre.}) 15. Qa5 c5 16. b4 Qe6 17. bxc5 Be7 18. Nd2 {Diagram [#]White has managed to regroup and prepares to meet the break .... f7-f5 wth the careful f2-f3. Black's bishops lack scope and to open diagonals for them is considerably more difficult than it was four moves ago.} Nf6 $1 ({The best chance. Black provokes the move f2-f3 and again obtains the possibility of increasing the activity of his pieces. If Tarrasch were to play} 18... Nf6 19. Nc3 Ng4 20. Nd5 Nxe3 21. fxe3 {then Black would have to solve more difficult problems.}) 19. f3 Rd3 $1 20. Rfe1 Rfd8 21. Rab1 ({The greedy} 21. Qxc7 { is punished at once by} Bc6) 21... Bc6 22. Nb2 ({On} 22. Rb2 {would follow the tactical operation} Bxa4 23. Qxa4 Rxe3 24. Rxe3 Bxc5 {which is favourable for Black.}) 22... R3d7 23. Rbc1 Nh5 24. Nd1 Nf4 25. Bxf4 exf4 26. Nb3 {Diagram [#] In this position, the extra but alo doubled white pawn does not play any part whatsoever. On the other hand, the initiative must gradually pass to Black. He occupies the d-file with his rooks and has two active bishops. To achieve success, he has to solve two problems to prevent the manoeuvre Nc3-d5 and to clear the white pawns out of the way of the king bishop.} Bh4 $1 ({Now on} 26... Bh4 27. Rf1 {would follow} f5 {He has to drive the knight away from the c3 square, from where it could get to d5.}) 27. Nf2 Qh6 28. Rc2 {Diagram [#]} Qg6 {With his previous threat of 28. .... Bxf2+ Chigoriin "pulled" the rook to the second rank and now unexpectably reveals the danger that lies in wait for White on the first rank.} ({He threatens} 28... Qg6 29. -- Bxe4 $1 30. Rxe4 Rd1+ {and} 31. Re1 {cannot be played because of} Qxc2) 29. Qc3 Qh5 $1 ({ A fine move, which not only prevents the exchange of rooks -} 29... Qh5 30. Rd2 Rxd2 31. Nxd2 Bxf2+ 32. Kxf2 Qxh2 {- but also forces White to make a responsible decision - to admit, with the move 30 Qa5, that a draw is the best result for him. (in reply, Black could undermine the e4-pawn by 3. .... Qg6 31.Qc3 f5 or continue a tense struggle by relying on steadfastness in defence. Tarrasch chooses the second way, but makes a pseudo-active move, abruptly easing Chigorin's task. He moves the same e4-pawn off the diagonal, after which the black bishop increases its influence.}) 30. e5 $2 {Diagram [#]} Qg6 ( 30... Qg6 31. -- {This fourfold manoeuvre, consisting of the short pendulum style movement of the black queen, makes a striking impression. White at once finds himself in a critical position. An immediate win is threatened by} Bxf3 32. Qxf3 Qxc2 {White cannot protect the f3-pawn.}) (30... Qg6 31. Nd2 Bxf2+ 32. Kxf2 Qxc2 $1 33. Qxc2 Rxd2+ 34. Qxd2 Rxd2+) (30... Qg6 {On} 31. Kf1 {would follow} Rd3 32. Nxd3) (30... Qg6 {There remains a move of the rook on c2, but on} 31. Rce2 {would follow} Rd3 $1 32. Nxd3 Rxd3 33. Qc1 Bxf3 {etc}) (30... Qg6 {Only after the move} 31. Rb2 {would White parry the threat} Rd3 32. Nxd3 Rxd3 {with the crafty} 33. Nc1) (30... Qg6 31. Rb2 {However by continuing} h5 { Black retains his activity, fully compensating for the pawn sacrifice. Tarrasch deides to exchange a pair of rooks and thereby weaken Black's pressure on the d-file.}) 31. Rd2 Bxf3 ({Chigorin safely avoids the trap} 31... Rxd2 32. Nxd2 Rxd2 33. Qxd2 Bxf3 34. Nh3 Bxe1 35. Qd8# {and, by exploiting the overloaded white queen's defensive function, carries out a favourable exchanging operation.}) 32. Qxf3 Rxd2 33. Nxd2 Rxd2 34. Rf1 h6 35. Qxf4 Bg5 36. Qf3 Be7 37. Kh1 Rxa2 {Diagram [#] And so Black has restored the material equalibrium, retaining a tangible positional position. He has an active rook, a distant passed pawn on a6, the Be7 will attack the weak white pawns in the centre, and White's pieces are tied to the defence of the g2-square - all this ought in the end to yield Black an uncomplicated win.} 38. Nd3 Bg5 39. Nb4 Rb2 40. Nd5 c6 41. Nc3 Rb3 42. Rd1 Kh7 ({It seems that fatique at the end of a very tense battle, makes itself felt. After} 42... Qc2 43. Rd3 Rxc3 {White would remain a piece down.}) 43. h3 Be7 44. Rd3 Bxc5 45. Ne4 Rb1+ 46. Kh2 Bg1+ 47. Kh1 Bd4+ 48. Kh2 Bxe5+ 49. g3 Rb2+ 50. Kg1 f5 $1 51. Nc5 {Diagram [#]} a5 $2 {Yet another "stroke of the brush" (compare 42. .... Kh7), but still not letting the win slip. The whole sense of Black's previous moves lies in driving away the knight from e4, and occupying th seventh ran with his heavy pieces -} (51... Qg5 52. Ne6 Qc1+ 53. Rd1 Qc2 {to decide the game with a mating attack.}) 52. Nd7 {Wite's position is so bad that his only chance consists of this transparent forking threat,} Bc7 $4 {An incompehensible oversight.which cannot be explained even by tiredness.} (52... Bd6 {wins easily.}) 53. Nf8+ 1-0 [Event "Buenos Aires"] [Site "?"] [Date "1992.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Polgar, Judit"] [Black "Panno, Oscar"] [Result "1-0"] [Annotator "Polgar"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "r4k1r/3b1pp1/4p3/pp1pPnpP/2pP4/P1P4R/2PKBPP1/R5N1 w - - 0 20"] [PlyCount "21"] [EventDate "1988.12.??"] [EventType "swiss"] [EventRounds "10"] [Source "ChessBase"] [SourceDate "1993.10.01"] {Diagram [#]In a closed Winawer line of the French, Black managed to exchange queens at the price of weakening his kingside structure. My space advantage offers me the chances of a lasting kingside attack, even in the absence of the queens.} 20. g4 {Blocking the weakness before attacking it, and also forcing the knight to a passive square.} Nh6 ({Forced, since} 20... Ne7 {would allow} 21. Rf3 {followed by Ng1-h3. when Black would not be in time to defend the g5-pawn. On h6 the knight is passive, but at least it prevernts 21.Rh3 due to the hanging g4-paw. At the sametime, the knight safely blocks the h-pawn, so I felt I should start my attack without delay.}) 21. f4 $1 {Immediately challenging the stability of the black knight.} gxf4 22. Rf1 f6 {A typical break in the French. In this exact position, it also fights for a blockade on the dark squares. At the same time, it weakens the g6-square. You can rarely get something without giving something else away.} 23. Rxf4 Ke7 {Diagram [#]} 24. Nf3 {It may seem strange that I develop the knight only on move 24, but in the closed lines of the French this is relatively normal. In fact, Black's ... f7-f6 was just asking for Ng1-f3-h4.} Raf8 25. Nh4 Be8 {Both sides have regrouped in accordance with the necessities of the position. It can be felt, though, that Black has reached the maximum of coordination, while I can still improve my position.} 26. Rh1 $1 {The rook enjoys the greatest mobility on the first rank. My plan was Rb1 with the threat of a3-a4. black would be practically forced to block his queenside on the light squares with a5-a4 and then I could switch to the kingside with Rg1, looking for the best moment to play g4-g5 (possibly after an exchange on f6). Black can choose between a policy of neutality, or preparing ...fxe5 or .... g7-g5. None of these possibilities guarantee a successful defence, but Panno's decision was the worst. This is one of the cases when a persistent threat of an attack is worse than its execution, inducing Black to go wrong.} Rhg8 ({Preparing the mistaken ....g7-g5. If} 26... fxe5 27. Rxf8 Rxf8 28. dxe5 Rg8 29. g5 Nf7 30. Ng6+ Kd8 31. Rg1 Kd7 32. Ke3 {Diagram [#] White's advantage is obvious in practically enery sector of the board. Breaking through is not easy, but there should be a way to combine the threats of h5-h6 and a king invasion on the queenside.}) 27. Ke3 g5 $1 ({Overlooking a small tactical detail. If Black wanted to break with ....g7-g5, he should at least have inserted the exchange on e5.} 27... fxe5 28. dxe5 g5 29. hxg6 Bxg6 30. Rxf8 Kxf8 {True, I would retain an advantage with} 31. Rf1+ {due to the possibility of invading through f6, plus my passed pawn.}) 28. hxg6 Bxg6 $2 ({It was not too late to look for an emergency exit, but Panno played quickly, after only two minutes, without realizing the seriousness of his mistake. True,} 28... fxe5 {does not promise Black an easy life:} 29. Rxf8 exd4+ 30. cxd4 Kxf8 ({or if} 30... Rxf8 31. Ng2 Ng8 32. Nf4 {with complete domination.}) 31. g5 Nf5+ 32. Nxf5 exf5 33. Bf3 Rxg6 34. Kf4 {With a clear advantage despite the temporary material disadvantage.}) 29. exf6+ Rxf6 30. Rxf6 {Diagram [#]} ({ Panno suddenly realized what was awaiting him.} 30. Rxf6 Kxf6 31. g5+ Kxg5 32. Nf3+ {winning the knight. Therefore, he resigned.}) 1-0 [Event "World Championship 5th"] [Site "USA/CAN"] [Date "1894.??.??"] [Round "2"] [White "Steinitz, William"] [Black "Lasker, Emanuel"] [Result "1-0"] [ECO "C65"] [Annotator "Romanovsky"] [PlyCount "83"] [EventDate "1894.03.15"] [EventType "match"] [EventRounds "19"] [EventCountry "USA"] [Source "ChessBase"] [SourceDate "1999.07.01"] 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 Nf6 4. d3 {Diagram [#]This modest opening move already contains within itself the seeds of a grand strategic design, which was executed with logic and precision both in this game and in numerous others from Steinitz’s career. Its essence lies in creating a sturdy centre by fortifying the e4-pawn, and on this basis organizing an energetic attack on the kingside. With these aims in view, the queen’s knight travels on the route Nb1-d2 - c4/f1-e3-f5 – a manoeuvre that was worked out and introduced into widespread practice by Steinitz himself. Meanwhile he would generally shelter his king on the queenside, but in some cases, as for example in the present game, he left it in the centre. From the very first moves of the opening, then, we can see that Steinitz’s thoughts are focused on definite aims extending far beyond the confines of the opening stage. Steinitz is here shedding light on two important principles of creative thinking, by which contemporary masters are still guided: a flank attack needs to be prepared by conquering the centre or solidly fortifying it; and the foundations for a middlegame plan must already be laid in the opening.} d6 5. c3 Bd7 {By unpinning his knight and then developing his king’s bishop on g7, Lasker was apparently seeking to exert maximum pressure against d4. Steinitz, however, has no intention of joining battle in the centre, and for that reason the deployment of forces that Lasker has in mind does not prove effective enough. On the other hand, four years before this game was played, an interesting plan of defence for Black had been demonstrated in a match game between Gunsberg and Chigorin. It involved very fast preparation for an advance in the centre with ...d5.} 6. Ba4 {The bishop is destined for b3 to attack the kingside, or else for c2 with the aim of fortifying the centre.} g6 7. Nbd2 Bg7 8. Nc4 O-O 9. Ne3 Ne7 10. Bb3 c6 {Diagram [#] Black has to expend several tempos in preparation for ...d5 which will begin his aggressive operations in the centre. This permits Steinitz to “show his cards” at once} 11. h4 {This tactical device – bringing the rook’s pawn very quickly into contact with the opponent’s pawn that has moved forward on the knight’s file, and thus opening lines for the attack on the king – is also one of the modern procedures. Starting with this move, Steinitz goes about implementing the main part of his plan – a direct attack on Black’s castled position.} Qc7 12. Ng5 {White threatens, after 13.h5 Nxh5, to sacrifice the exchange with 14.Rxh5. } d5 ({Lasker also considered} 12... h6 {but rejcted it in view of} 13. g4 hxg5 14. hxg5 Nh7 15. Nf5 gxf5 16. gxf5 Nxf5 17. Qh5 {Black could, however, defend satisfactorily with} Nh6 18. gxh6 Bf6 19. Bg5 Qd8 $1 {(If the knight or bishop takes on g5, White plays 20.Qg6† with unavoidable mate on g7.)} 20. Rg1 Kh8 { In fairness we should add that in answer to 12...h6 White could continue the attack with 13.Qf3. Then after 13...hxg5 14.hxg5 Nh7 (or 14...Nh5) an obscure position would arise, demanding great ingenuity and a high level of technique in conducting the attack and the defence. At any rate, neither Lasker nor Steinitz would have been capable of working out all the multitude of variations over the board. In the initial period of his chess career Lasker avoided such lines, in which there was much that could not be foreseen. Steinitz was a good deal more willing to take risks, especially when the risk could to some extent be justified by reference to his positional principles. Broadly speaking, the question of how much risk is permissible on the basis of a general assessment of the position has remained unresolved from Steinitz’s day to ours.}) 13. f3 Rad8 14. g4 {Diagram [#]} dxe4 ({This exchange of pawns, presenting the white queen with the f3-square, deserves censure. At this point 14...h6 is met by} 14... h6 {is met by} 15. Qe2 {when Black should not take the knight:} hxg5 16. hxg5 Nh7 ({or} 16... Ne8 17. Qh2 f6 18. exd5 cxd5 19. Nxd5 Nxd5 20. Bxd5+ Rf7 21. Qh7+ Kf8 22. Qxg6 Bc6 23. Qxf7+ Qxf7 24. Bxf7 Kxf7 25. Ke2 {and for the bishop and knight White has a rook and three pawns.}) 17. Nf5 gxf5 18. Qh2 Rfe8 19. Qxh7+ Kf8 20. gxf5 {and the attack is irresistible. However, after the stronger 15...d4, the knight must retreat (the sacrifice on f5 is clearly inadequate), and White’s attack is delayed for a considerable time. 15}) 15. fxe4 h6 ({As things turn out, Lasker resorts to this move after all. White’s threat, apart from any direct attacks with Qf3 or h4-h5, was to play Qe2 and Bd2, then castle queenside and bring his queen’s rook into the battle. However, the move selected by Lasker fails in its aim, and the black king’s position proves to be compromised. Black could have tried attacking the g4-pawn a third time with:} 15... Qc8 {Diagram [#]} 16. h5 { This assures White of a very strong initiative. If instead White defends the pawn with} (16. Rg1 {then} h6 {to sustain his attack, White could try sacrificing both knights, but after} 17. Qf3 hxg5 18. hxg5 Nh7 19. Nf5 gxf5 { Black can return one piece with} 20. gxf5 Bxf5 21. exf5 Qxf5 {and the attack peters out.}) 16... Bxg4 (16... Nxg4 17. hxg6 hxg6 18. Qe2 {gives White a winning attack.}) (16... h6 17. Nxf7 Rxf7 18. hxg6 Nxg6 19. Bxf7+ Kxf7 20. Nf5 {is also promising for White.}) 17. Nxg4 Qxg4 18. Qxg4 Nxg4 19. hxg6 hxg6 { Now White has the pleasant choice between the spectacular 20.Ne6! and the leisurely 20.Qe2, when in spite of the queen exchange the danger to the black king has not passed.}) 16. Qf3 $1 Be8 ({In this case the knight cannot be taken, for after} 16... hxg5 17. hxg5 Nh7 18. Nf5 $1 gxf5 19. Qh3 Rfe8 20. Qxh7+ Kf8 21. gxf5 {it is time for White to resign.}) 17. Bc2 Nd7 18. Nh3 { A sensible retreat, but one which also harbours thoughts about the further continuation of the attack.} Nc5 19. Nf2 {Diagram [#] These last moves of White’s, fortifying the d3-point, are evidence of Steinitz’s strict adherence to the principle he formulated himself, which states that the success of a flank attack is only possible with a stable centre. In this context the range of action of White’s pieces is noteworthy. A mere three moves ago, his bishop stationed on b3 and his knight on g5 were directed against the f7-point. Now they have entirely switched over to fulfilling defensive functions. Great flexibility in manoeuvring with the pieces was a characteristic feature of Steinitz’s play. At the same time we must observe that Steinitz has still maintained his attacking position on the kingside and, as the following events will testify, has even resolved to carry on the attack without mobilizing his queenside reserves. From Lasker's next move, we can see that the entry of these reserves into the play was just what he feared.} b5 ({A very cunning idea, aimed at working up a counterattack in the centre and on the queenside, and designed to meet the natural} 19... b5 20. Bd2 {In that case, there would follow} b4 21. cxb4 ({or} 21. O-O-O bxc3 22. bxc3 Qa5 {with a queenside initiative,}) 21... Ne6 22. Bc3 c5 23. bxc5 Qxc5 {completely refuting White’s plan. Steinitz figures out Lasker’s scheme and immediately throws himself into the attack which is founded on a bold and attractive knight sacrifice.}) 20. g5 h5 21. Nf5 gxf5 ({ Now the knight has to be taken, as passive defence would hold out no hope. The only active move that Black has available, aside from acceptance of the sacrifice, is} 21... f6 22. Nxg7 Kxg7 (22... fxg5 23. Nxe8) 23. gxf6+ Rxf6 24. Bh6+ Kf7 25. Qe3 {when Black is in a bad way.}) 22. exf5 f6 23. g6 Nxg6 { Obviously forced, given the threat of £xh5. As a result of the initial “bloodshed” Black gains a pawn, but an open g-file makes its appearance and White takes control of it. And the g-file is the direct route into the “palace” of the monarch himself. This circumstance is what is specially menacing to Black.} 24. fxg6 Bxg6 25. Rg1 {Diagram [#] Now how is Black to defend? If the bishop on g6 moves, White plays 26.Bh6.} (25. Rg1 {Finally} Qf7 {is answered by} 26. Qg2 Bh7 (26... Kh7 27. Be3 Nxd3+ 28. Nxd3 Bxd3 29. Bxd3+ Rxd3 30. Qe4+) 27. Bh6 Rd7 (27... Ne6 28. Bb3) 28. Bxg7 Qxg7 29. Qh2 Bg6 30. d4 {and White wins.}) 25... e4 {An interesting attempt at saving the day is The existence of this possibility testifies to the complexity of the struggle. Having missed it, Lasker suffers material losses, after which the fight enters its largely technical phase.} ({An interesting attempt at saving the day is} 25... Bxd3 {(it was Chigorin who first drew attention to this move)} {In the event of} 26. Bxd3 Rxd3 27. Nxd3 e4 28. Qxh5 Nxd3+ {Black has good chances of at least reaching a draw.}) 26. dxe4 Kh7 ({Or} 26... Qf7 27. b4 Ne6 28. Bb3 Rfe8 29. Nh3 {and the knight reaches f4.}) 27. Rxg6 Kxg6 28. Qf5+ Kf7 29. Qxh5+ Kg8 30. Qxc5 {White not only has bishop, knight and pawn for a rook – in itself an advantage sufficient to win – he also maintains direct threats. His two bishops are operating with great strength. The threat at present is the lethal 31.Bb3†.} Qe5 31. Be3 a6 32. a4 {With the queenside reserves brought into the battle, the game is decided at once.} Rfe8 33. axb5 axb5 34. Qxe5 Rxe5 35. Ra6 {Invasion! What is notable is that the rook’s energetic sally to a6 is its first and last action in this game. Just one move! The rook paralyses the opponent’s forces and thereby lends powerful support to White’s crowning attack with his minor pieces. Interestingly, his king’s rook has similarly made only two moves – Rh1-g1xg6. Minimum effort, maximum gain! Such is the principle of economy, of which Steinitz spoke more than once in his theoretical works, and which he also demonstrated many a time} Rc8 36. Ng4 Re7 37. Bc5 Ree8 38. Ne3 Bf8 39. Bd4 Kf7 40. h5 Be7 41. Bb3+ Kf8 42. Nf5 {In conclusion, a permanent knight appears on the scene. Under its cover, and with help from the superbly placed bishops, a free path to the dream square h8 is opened for the white h-pawn. Black therefore resigned.} 1-0 [Event "London (Game 47)"] [Site "London"] [Date "1899.??.??"] [Round "8"] [White "Showalter, Jackson Whipps"] [Black "Lasker, Emanuel"] [Result "0-1"] [ECO "D00"] [Annotator "John Nunn"] [SetUp "1"] [FEN "8/pp3Rkp/4p1p1/3pP2n/3P4/2PB3P/PP6/6K1 b - - 0 29"] [PlyCount "35"] [EventDate "1899.??.??"] [EventType "tourn"] [EventRounds "28"] [EventCountry "ENG"] [Source "ChessBase"] [SourceDate "1999.07.01"] 29... Kxf7 {The following example is a curiousity. In the diagram there are many pawns on the board and the centre is closed, which tends to favour the knight, but on the other hand White's bishop is well-placed and is unobstructed by friendly pawns. These advantages balances one another and the position may be evaluated as equal. Nevertheless, Lasker gradually outplays his opponent, making the most of the knights advantages while at the same time limiting the scope of the bishop. Diagram [#]} {The position is completely equal. Normally the bishop would be slightly better than the knight in such positions, but here the knight is heading for the f4 square, where it will be just as active as White's bishop. Black has a two-to-one pawn-majority on the king's wing, but this should pose no problem for White so long ashe can keep his pieces actively placed. Although White is currently not in any danger, he should take care noot to take the first step down the slippery path by ensuring that Black cannot make significant progress. The main danger is that White's bishop will end up stuck on f1 after the knight comes to f4, after which ...g5 followed by ....Kg5-f5 would put White on the defensive. Although even this would not be enough to down White, there's no reason to allow Black to make so much progress.} 30. Kf2 $6 ({This is precisely the type of move to avoid. There are two plans that would have kept the position in equalibrium. The first is to play} 30. Kh2 Nf4 31. Bc2 h6 32. Kg3 {when White prevents Black from bringing his king to g6 by keeping his bishop on the b2-h7 diagonal. In this case White would be at least equal.}) ({The other plan is} 30. h4 Ng3 31. Kg2 Nf5 32. Bxf5 gxf5 33. a4 $1 {(matters are less clear if Black is allowed to play .... b5)} a6 34. a5 Ke7 35. Kf3 { when Black actually has to take care to draw, for example} Kd7 36. b3 Kc6 37. c4 dxc4 38. bxc4 b5 39. axb6 Kxb6 40. d5 exd5 41. e6 Kc7 42. cxd5 a5 43. Kf4 Kd6 44. Kxf5 a4 45. Kf6 a3 46. e7 a2 47. e8=Q a1=Q+ {and Black has slightly the worse of the draw,}) 30... Nf4 31. Bf1 g5 {This game is a perdect example of how, step by strp, it's possible to to lose a dead drawn position. By making one one small concession after another, White drifts from "dead drawn" to "draw with accurate play", and finally to "lost".} 32. Kf3 Kg6 33. h4 ({ White decides to get rid of the weak pawn on h3 but this has the defect of of giving Black a passed h-pawn. Although the position remains drawn even after this, White would have held the game more simply by} 33. c4 dxc4 34. Bxc4 h5 ( 34... Kf5 $6 35. Bb3 {(threatening mate causes problems only for Black)}) 35. Ke4 {(White should have no problems once his king reaches this active square.)} b5 36. Bb3 a5 37. h4 a4 38. Bc2 Nd5 39. Bd3 b4 40. hxg5 Kxg5 41. Bc4 Nf4 42. a3 bxa3 43. bxa3 {and with the reduction in material Black has no winning chances. }) 33... h5 {Diagram [#]} 34. b3 $6 {This is a definite inaccuracy. The main danger for Wgite is that Black will use his forthcoming b-pawn to divert the white king, allowing Black to penetrate with his own king via e4. If the pawn is on b2, the black king has to go the long way to sttack any pawns, but by weakening the c3-pawn, White has made Black's plan even more dangerous. Playing b3 would be justified if White could favourably contine c4, but the best moment for this move has already passed and it turns out that pushing the c-pawn only weakens the d4-pawn.} ({The correct plan is to gain space with the a-pawn, leaving the other pawns untouched so that they remain defending each other. After} 34. hxg5 Kxg5 35. a4 Kf5 (35... a5 {gives the white bishop a good square on b5 and after} 36. Bb5 h4 37. Bf1 Kf5 38. Bb5 h3 $6 39. Kg3 Ke4 40. Bf1 {White is even slightly better.}) 36. a5 h4 37. Bb5 Nh3 (37... h3 $6 38. Kg3 Ke4 39. Bf1) 38. Bd3+ Kg5 39. Bf1 {again achieves nothing for Black.} Nf4 40. Bb5 {Black cannot make progress.}) 34... Kf5 35. hxg5 Kxg5 36. c4 $2 ({ This is the point at which the position becomes winning for Black. With accurate play White could still hold the game.} 36. a4 $1 h4 37. a5 Kf5 38. b4 h3 39. Kg3 Ke4 40. Kh2 Ke3 41. Kg3 h2 {(the only way to make progress)} 42. Kxh2 Kd2 43. Kg3 Ng6 44. c4 dxc4 45. Bxc4 Kc3 46. Bxe6 Kxd4 47. Bc8 {with a general liquidation and inevitable draw.}) 36... dxc4 37. bxc4 ({Black also wins after} 37. Bxc4 h4 38. Bf1 Kf5 39. a4 h3 40. Kg3 a5 41. Kh2 Ke4 42. Kg3 h2 43. Kxh2 Kxd4) 37... Kf5 38. Kg3 {Diagram [#]} ({On} 38. a4 a5 39. c5 h4 40. Bb5 h3 41. Kg3 Ke4 42. c6 (42. Bd7 Kxd4 43. c6 Ne2+ 44. Kxh3 bxc6 {also wins for Black.}) 42... bxc6 43. Bxc6+ Nd5 44. Kxh3 Kxd4 45. Kg4 Kxe5 {with a winning position for Black, although accurate play is necessary, for example} 46. Kf3 Kd4 47. Bd7 e5 48. Ke2 Nc3+ 49. Kd2 Kc4 50. Ke3 Nd5+ 51. Kf3 Kd3 52. Bb5+ Kd4 {followed by ...Nc3 with a clear win.}) 38... Ke4 39. d5 {The only chance but it proves inadequate.} exd5 40. e6 (40. cxd5 Nxd5 41. Be2 Kxe5 42. Bxh5 Nc3 {is decisive.}) 40... Nxe6 41. cxd5 (41. Bg2+ Ke5 42. cxd5 Nc5 { is hopeless for White,}) 41... Nc5 42. Bg2+ ({Or} 42. d6 Ke5 43. Be2 Ne4+ { and White is dead lost.}) 42... Ke5 43. Kh4 (43. Bf3 b5 44. Bxh5 Kxd5 {is no better.}) 43... a5 44. Kxh5 b5 45. Kg4 b4 46. Kf3 a4 0-1 [Event "World Championship 13th"] [Site "Buenos Aires"] [Date "1927.10.26"] [Round "21"] [White "Capablanca, Jose Raul"] [Black "Alekhine, Alexander"] [Result "0-1"] [ECO "D63"] [Annotator "Alekhine"] [PlyCount "64"] [EventDate "1927.09.16"] [EventType "match"] [EventRounds "34"] [EventCountry "ARG"] [Source "ChessBase"] [SourceDate "1999.07.01"] 1. d4 d5 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 Nf6 4. Bg5 Nbd7 5. e3 Be7 6. Nf3 O-O 7. Rc1 a6 { Although with this less usual defence I obtained quite a success in this match (+1. =7, -0), I consier it now as not being satisfactory because of the possible answer 8.cxd5, adopted by Capablanca in the 23rd, 25th and 27th games.} 8. a3 $2 {This tame rejoinder will be convincingly refute (as a winning attempt, of course) in the present game. It has since completely disappeared from the master's practice.} h6 9. Bh4 dxc4 10. Bxc4 b5 $1 ({More natural and better than} 10... b6 {which, however, in the 13th, 15th, 17th and 19th games proved sufficient for maintaining the balance of the position.}) 11. Be2 Bb7 12. O-O ({In the event of} 12. b4 { Black would have obtained the initiative by} a5 $1 13. Qb3 axb4 14. axb4 g5 15. Bg3 Nd5 {etc.}) 12... c5 13. dxc5 Nxc5 14. Nd4 ({As White has not an atom of advantage the logical course for him was to simplify matters by means of} 14. Qxd8 Rfxd8 15. Rfd1 {etc.}) ({Entirely wrong would be, instead of the text move,} 14. Bxf6 Bxf6 15. Nxb5 {because of} Qxd1 16. Rfxd1 Nb3 17. Rc7 Bxf3 18. Bxf3 axb5 19. Bxa8 Rxa8 $17) 14... Rc8 {Preventing once and for all N(c3) x b5. } 15. b4 ({Weakening, without necessity, the c4-square. Simpler was} 15. Bf3 Qb6 16. Qe2 {etc.}) 15... Ncd7 16. Bg3 ({In the event of} 16. Bf3 {I intended to play} Qb6 17. Ne4 Rxc1 18. Qxc1 Rc8 {after which the white queen would have no good square at its disposal, for instance: 1)} 19. Qb1 $2 {or d2?} (19. Qb2 g5 20. Nxf6+ Bxf6) (19. Qd1 g5) 19... Nxe4 { etc. The text move is therefore comparatively the best.}) 16... Nb6 17. Qb3 (17. Qb3 {In order to answer} Nc4 {by} 18. Rfd1 Qb6 19. a4 {etc.}) 17... Nfd5 (17... Nfd5 {A good move connected with the positional threat} 18. -- Nxc3 19. Rxc3 Bd5 20. Qb2 Rxc3 21. Qxc3 Qa8 {followed by Rc8 with advantage. White's answer is practically forced.}) 18. Bf3 Rc4 $1 19. Ne4 Qc8 20. Rxc4 ({I am inclined to consider this exchange as the decisive positional error, as from now on Black, taking advantage of the formidable position of his knight at c4, will be able gradually to concentrate all his pieces for a forcing action in the centre. White's correct move was} 20. Qb1 {threatening both 21.Nd6 or Bd6; if in that case} Rd8 {then} 21. Nd2 Rxc1 22. Rxc1 Qa8 23. Bc7 {and White would succeed in exchanging some further material without compromising his position. Still, the text move can by no means be considered as an actual blunder, and Capablanca lost this game only because he did not realise in time the dangers of his positioon and was, in the issue, regularly outplayed.}) 20... Nxc4 21. Rc1 Qa8 $1 {Threatening 22. ...Nxb5 or e6, and thus forcing White to abandon control of the light-coloured squares in the middle.} 22. Nc3 ({If} 22. Nc5 { then} Bxc5 23. bxc5 Rc8 24. Be2 Rxc5 25. Bxc4 Qc8 {winning a pawn.}) 22... Rc8 {Threateniing 23. ...Nd2. etc} 23. Nxd5 Bxd5 24. Bxd5 Qxd5 25. a4 {The wish to reduce the pawn material on the queen side is natural, but White's position still remains compromised, inasmuch as his b-pawn will become a target of attack in the endgame.} Bf6 26. Nf3 {Diagram [#]} ({Of course not} 26. Rd1 { because} bxa4 27. Qxa4 Nb2 28. Qxa6 Ra8 {and wins.}) 26... Bb2 $1 27. Re1 ({ In order to play ...e5 without restricting the activity of the bishop. The tactical justification of this move is shown by the following variations:} 27. Rd1 bxa4 $1 28. Qxa4 Nb6 29. Rxd5 Nxa4 30. Rd1 Nc3 31. Re1 Rc4 32. Bd6 Ne4 33. Be7 f6 34. Rb1 Kf7 35. Bc5) ({2)} 27. Rb1 Na3 $1 28. Qxb2 Nxb1 29. Qxb1 Qb3 30. Qf1 bxa4 31. h3 a3 {and wins.}) 27... Rd8 28. axb5 axb5 29. h3 {This emergency exit is absolutely neccessary.} e5 30. Rb1 e4 $1 {The beginning of the end.} 31. Nd4 ({Or A} 31. Ne1 Qd2 32. Qc2 Qxc2 33. Nxc2 Rd2 34. Ne1 Na3 {and wins. B.}) (31. Nh2 Qd3 $1 32. Rxb2 Qxb3 33. Rxb3 Rd1+ 34. Nf1 Nd2 35. Ra3 Nxf1 { and White would be helpless.}) 31... Bxd4 32. Rd1 ({Loses immediately. But also after} 32. exd4 Qxd4 {the game would not have lasted long.}) 32... Nxe3 { This and the 34th game are, in my opinion, the most valuable of the match.} 0-1 [Event "World Championship 25th"] [Site "Moscow"] [Date "1963.??.??"] [Round "1"] [White "Petrosian, Tigran V"] [Black "Botvinnik, Mikhail"] [Result "0-1"] [ECO "E35"] [Annotator "Petrosian"] [PlyCount "80"] [EventDate "1963.03.23"] [EventType "match"] [EventRounds "22"] [EventCountry "URS"] [Source "ChessBase"] 1. d4 Nf6 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 Bb4 4. Qc2 {Botvinnik is considered to be one of the leading world experts on the Nimzo-Indian Defence. In recent years he has preferred to play it as White. and so, although it's appearance in the first game of the match was something of a surprise, I was pleased with Botvinnik's choice. After all, the 4.Qc2 variation usually leads to quiet situations in the middlegame, if Black does not definitely aim to sharpen the play.} d5 { I do not recall Botvinnik replying to 4.Qc2 in any other way.} 5. cxd5 exd5 6. Bg5 h6 7. Bxf6 Qxf6 8. a3 Bxc3+ 9. Qxc3 c6 ({An interesting moment. Theoretical guides consider} 9... O-O {to be the most precise move order to answer} 10. Nf3 {with} Bf5 {offering the opponent a pawn, which after} 11. Qxc7 Nd7 {leads to White falling rather behind in development.}) 10. e3 O-O 11. Ne2 {Diagram [#] Exactly ten years earlier Reshevsky played this move against Geller, and I, , making my debut in the Candidates Tournament, watched in surprise as, with apparently simple moves, the American grandmaster quickly gained an appreciable advantage. Of course, it was naive to hope that the path taken by Geller would be followed by Botvinnik, who had obviously analysed the game himself and found the correct method of development. Botvinnik's next move is very simple in form, but in essence very strong. The f4-square becomes a forbidden zone for the white knight, and it is obliged to change course.} Re8 $1 12. Ng3 g6 $1 {Despite their apparent simplicity, Black's moves, united by a single plan, are endowed with enormous strength. It transpires that it is not at all easy for White to mobilise his forces successfully. Rejecting the normal post at f3, White has sought a better fate for his knight, but Black convincingly demonstrates the defects of the opening set-up. Already here I realised that my hopes of reaching a middlegame promising quiet play but with better prospects for White had vanished into thin air. Common sense suggested that I should be thinking of a secure equality, before it was too late. But at that moment I began thinking about most inopportunely of the unfavourable reaction which a quiet draw would provoke in the press. Here it is appropriate to recall that I am not one of those players who does not avoid reading press reports during an event, and I really did not want to be castigated for the very first game of the match. The fruit of such extraneous thinking was the move I now made.} 13. f3 {This leads to a complicate game, in which Black will have the initiative. To an experience player it is more or less obvious that White's good intentions are destined not to be realised. The advance of the h-pawn will drive back his knight to a passive position, since he intends to develop his bishop at e2. It follows that White is unable to concentrate sufficient force to enable to advance e3-e4, and his epawn will remain backward on a half-open file, which in oue day is liable to have highly unpleasant consequences.} h5 14. Be2 ({White's position would hsve been more secure after} 14. h4) 14... Nd7 15. Kf2 ({White has to agree to this "development" of his king,} 15. O-O {would take away the one more or less decent square from his knight, which after} h4 {would be forced into the very corner of the board, and after} 16. Nh1 Qg5 {his position would rapidly become critical.}) 15... h4 16. Nf1 Nf8 17. Nd2 Re7 18. Rhe1 Bf5 {It is instructive to follow how Botvinnik arranges his pieces. Many would have been unable to resist the temptation of placing the knight at f6, from where it would exert additional control over e4. But after penetrating deeply into the essence of the position, Botvinnik has played it to f8, realising that from there it will be able to make for a more promising position. His rooks will be doubled on the e-file, his bishop is excellentally place at f5, and at f6 his queen occupies an ideal post. White can only dream of such harmonious deployment of his forces.Diagram [#]} 19. h3 $2 {A serious positional mistake, which sharply reduces the effectiveness of White's kingside defences. When pawns stand side by side, formaing a phalanx, they possess great vitality. Therefore one of the features of middlegame play is that the player with the initiative will try to provoke the opponent into advancing one of his pawns, leading to the creation of weaknesses which become a real target for attack. I realised that the appearance of the black knight at g5 in combination with the wonderful prospects opened for the black queen along the b8-h2 diagonal (the g3-square) would be extremely dangerous, but I neverthe less advanced the pawn, though not without hesitation. Otherwise I would have to watch closely for a possible ...h3 which would have deprived the f3 pawn of a secure support, an important factor in view of the possible triple attack ....Qf6, ....Bg4 and ... .Ng5. But this would undoubtably have been the lesser evil. It is said that a good swimmer can be considered as good as dead when he stops battling and relies on the motion of the waves.} Rae8 20. Nf1 Ne6 21. Qd2 { Of course 21.Bd3 could have been played. I do not think that the exchange of bishops would have changed in any way the assessment of the position, but it would at least have enabled White to avoid the sacrificial idea which became possible in the game. Diagram [#]} Ng7 {Eye-witnesses say that, when it became known that Botvinnik had not played 21. ....Ng5 with the intention of sacrificing a piece at h3, this was met by a sigh of disappointment. Analysis borrowed from the magazine Shakhmaty v SSSR convincingly demonstrates the irresistable nature of Black's attack. Does this mean that question marks should be attached to both White's and Black's 21st mves? After all, the two players ovrlooked a possibility which would have clearly disclosed the triumph of Black's strategy. Believe me, I have spent a great deal of time, a very great deal, in the press centre at World Championship matches, and I know thast even there, where usually the cream of the country's chess players assemble, where in a calm atmosphere grandmasters and masters encourage each other, where in the event of a 'hole' in some variations they can take a move back, so as a second later to sacrifice instantly a further piece, even in the press centre many continuations were tried before it was found that 21. ...Ng5 would have led to a win. One can understand Botvinnik choosing a positional continuation, although the greater part of the time which he used for his 21st move must have been spent calculating variations involving the sacrifice at h3. To complete the picture, we give the two most interesting variations.} ({1)} 21... Ng5 22. Kg1 Bxh3 23. gxh3 Nxh3+ 24. Kh1 (24. Kh2 Rxe3 25. Nxe3 Qf4+ 26. Kh1 Nf2+ 27. Kg1 Qg3+ 28. Kf1 ({or} 28. Ng2 h3 29. Bf1 h2#) 28... Nh3 29. Bd1 Qg1+ 30. Ke2 Nf4#) 24... Qg5 25. Kh2 Qg1+ 26. Kxh3 Rxe3 {and despite his two extra pieces, White loses.}) ({2)} 21... Ng5 22. Qd1 Bxh3 23. gxh3 Ne4+ 24. Kg2 Qg5+ 25. Kh2 Nf2 26. Qd2 Rxe3 27. Bd1 Qf4+ 28. Kg2 Nxd1 29. Raxd1 Qxf3+ 30. Kg1 Re2 31. Rxe2 Rxe2 32. Qg5 Qf2+ 33. Kh1 Rxb2 {and Black wins.}) 22. Rad1 Nh5 23. Rc1 {This could have been played a move earlier, in order now to make a demonstration on thee queenside. White continues to stick to passive tactics.} Qd6 24. Rc3 Ng3 25. Kg1 Nh5 26. Bd1 Re6 27. Qf2 Qe7 {Both sides have somewhat regrouped their forces. After making an excursion to g3, black has promptly withdrawn, obviously not wishing to exchange knights. Then he has buit up on the e-file. The assessment of the position has not changed. The initiative is held by Black but it is not so easy for him to get at te most vulnerable point in White's position - the e3-pwn. In the manouevring battle the pieces of the two players have significantly changed their dispositions, and such changes inevitably lea to the appearance of new motifs. For example, the insifficiently defended rook at e1 made the f4-square accessible to the black knight, while Black's 'artillery' lined up on the e-file has also become a target. by transferring his bishop to b3, White creates the threat of e3-e4, breaking out at a point where Black's control seems undisputed.} 28. Bb3 { It would not have done any harm to play 28.b4 first, obliging Black to reckon with White's play on the queenside. But White was thinking only of defence, and he naturally imagined that the advance of the b-pawn would merely create a new weakness.} g5 29. Bd1 ({It cannot be said that after} 29. e4 {White would have been out of danger. The black knights would have gaine an eternal post on f4, where it would have been in the immediate proximity of White's vulnerable points. This factor was sufficient for me to reject 29.e4.}) 29... Bg6 {Black's last move showed that he was intening to carry out the following plan; advance his f-pawn to f4, then again invade with his knight at g3 or play it via g7 to f5, and White's position would be unable to withstand such pressure. But his plan demands much time and also considerable effort. White's position is difficult, but as yet there is no need for an act of desperation. The move 30.g4 is suicidal.Diagram [#]} 30. g4 hxg3 31. Nxg3 Nf4 {I was extremely srprised when this move was made; for some reason I was sure that the exchange would take place or the knight would retreat. Now, in view of the threats of 32. ...Nxh3+ and 32. ...Nd3, severing the connection between the rook at c3 and the e-pawn and picking up the latter, it was time to resign. But a few more moves were made.} 32. Qh2 c5 ({Black is no longer satisfied with the prosiac 32. ...Nd3 but intens to finish off his opponent tactically. The c5-pawn is immune} 32... c5 33. Rxc5 ({or} 33. dxc5 d4) 33... Nd3 {White's stronghold in the centre has suddenly become unsteady, and so the queen abandons the h3-pawn to its fate and hastens to prop up the d4-pawn (and square).}) 33. Qd2 c4 {Black calmly continues accumulating positional pluses, although a more impatient player would by now have switched to concrete action. The avalanche of black pawns threaten to set in motion and against the attacks by the knight on d3 and h3 there is no defence,} 34. Ba4 b5 ({One blow after another! Capturing on b5 is bad, as however are other moves.} 34... b5 35. Bxb5 Rb8 36. Ba4 (36. a4 Reb6 {followed by ....a6.}) 36... Nd3) 35. Bc2 Nxh3+ 36. Kf1 Qf6 37. Kg2 Nf4+ 38. exf4 Rxe1 39. fxg5 Qe6 40. f4 Re2+ {And here, having made the stipulated 40 moves,, in a calm situation (if, of course, my condition could be called calm) after brief consideration I resigned. It was difficult, very difficult to acknowledge that the first game had concluded so ingloriously. It was not the fact that I had lost - no one is ever insured against defeat. But to lose so ingloriously, essentially without a fight. I slept badly, only in fits, that first night of the match. first falling into a deep sleep, then lying awake. I wondered what on earth had happened? Fragments of the game passed before my eyes. Had I made mistakes in my pre-match preparations? Should I immediately revise all those decisions, taken in the pre-match period, that had seemed so wise? No! There was no reason for panic an hasty decisions. After all, botvinnik had decided on the tactical blows 32. ...c5 and 34. ...b5 with apparent ease but the fact that he had avoided forcing matters -21 ...Ng7 - was not all that surrising. What would I have done in his place? Probably the same. In the chess world you would find few players of a gambling nature, who woul stake the fate of the first game of a World Championship match on such a risky venture. The entire attack with its quiet moves was the result of Black's emotional belief in the strength of his position, rather than the product of precise calculation. The morning came. My heart was heavy, very heavy. but the solution had already come to me. It was no longer the first game of the match, and no longer that state which could only be called one of shock. Everything had to begin again from the beginning.} 0-1 [Event "World Championship 25th"] [Site "Moscow"] [Date "1963.??.??"] [Round "2"] [White "Botvinnik, Mikhail"] [Black "Petrosian, Tigran V"] [Result "1/2-1/2"] [ECO "D27"] [Annotator "Petrosian"] [PlyCount "70"] [EventDate "1963.03.23"] [EventType "match"] [EventRounds "22"] [EventCountry "URS"] [Source "ChessBase"] 1. d4 d5 2. c4 dxc4 3. Nf3 Nf6 4. e3 c5 5. Bxc4 e6 6. O-O a6 7. a4 { Botvinnik's favourite weapon, which, it is true, has not earned him many laurels. Therefore, although in our preparations we paid particular attention to it; it could have been assumed that Botvinnik, enjoying the services of Furman, who was highly erudite in the field of chess openings, and who always kept pace with the development of chess theory and was even slightly ahead of it, would resort to a more fashionable variation. But the World Champion remained faithful to the scheme of development by which White radically prevents Black's intended development of his light-squared bishop by ....b5 and ....Bb7. The slight drawback to White's 7th move is the possibilty of a black piece becoming established at b4. Usually this piece is a knight, for which b4 becomes a staging post on the way to d5, or else a sentry post from where it controls the square in front of the isolated pawn, simultaneously restricting to a certain extent the development of White's initiative on the kingside.} Nc6 8. Qe2 cxd4 9. Rd1 Be7 (9... d3 {comes into consideration, but this changes the character of the play; there will no longer be the isolated pawn, for which both White and Black are aiming.}) 10. exd4 O-O 11. Bg5 Nd5 {Quite a good move. After the exchange of dark-squared bishops White's attacking pieces are reduced, whereas the black knights will ne very flexibly deployed.} 12. Bxe7 Ncxe7 13. Ne5 Bd7 {The devlopment of the bishop by ...b6 and ...Bb7 looks more active, but the modest text move also has its virtues. In the same two moves the bishop moves on to the long diagonal, simultaneously attacking the a4-pawn, and the black pawns are much better placed at b7 and a6.} 14. Nd2 {The knight as though sidles up to the e4 square, avoiding c3 where it could have been exchanged.} Bc6 15. Ne4 Nf4 16. Qf3 Bxe4 17. Qxe4 Nfd5 {Diagram [#] Another pair of minor pieces has disappeared from the board, and again both players were happy with the course of events. I was happy with my position, since the d5 square is still under Black's control, and White cannot create any serious threats on the kingside. But White too has no reason for complaint; Black's position is solid but passive, and by switching his rook along the 3rd rank to the kingside, Botvinnik raises the tension of the struggle.} 18. Ra3 Rc8 19. Rh3 Ng6 { White has to be careful , since he has no real prospects of an attack, whereas the black pieces are gradually breaking out. Therefore, now, when the second black knight is not able to replace his colleague on d5, White deprives the opponent of his main trump.} 20. Bxd5 exd5 {Capturing with the queen would have led to an ending with equal chances. But I thought that the time had arrived when I could try to exploit the drawbacks of White's position.} 21. Qf5 Qd6 $2 (21... Qa5 {should have been played, attacking the a-pawn and creating the unpleasant threat of ..... Qd2. Black hasno reason to fear} 22. Qh5 h6 23. Nxg6 fxg6 24. Qxg6 {in view of} Qd2) 22. Rb3 ({Black's inaccuracy has led to White again taking the initiative. At b3 the rook is ideally placed. The simple trap set by Black} 22. Nxf7 Qf4 $1 {is of course avoided.}) 22... Rc7 23. g3 b6 $2 (23... Nxe5 24. dxe5 Qe6 25. Qxe6 fxe6 {did not appeal to me at,}) ({and neither did} 23... Ne7 24. Qf4 f6 25. Nd3) {so I reluctantly created a weakness at b6.} 24. Re1 Ne7 25. Qf4 {Here too this move is the strongest, whereas other queen movwes would have allowed Black good chances after 25. .... f6 followed by ..... Rc4.} Rc2 26. Nd3 {Only two moves have passed since the incautious 23. ....b6, and the black position is coming under very strong pressure. The exchange of queens loses a pawn, and therefore Black is obliged to retreat.} Qd8 27. Qg5 Nc8 {Diagram [#]} 28. Qxd8 ({After this black can breathe freely, whereas} 28. Qe5 {would have left White with a significant advantage. I saw against the threat of} -- 29. Nf4 {I could defend by} Rc7 { but then after 29.Re3 or 29.Kg2 Black's defence is not so easy.}) 28... Rxd8 29. a5 bxa5 30. Rb8 {The temporary sacrifice followed by the invasion of the 8th rank by the rook looks dangerous, but with his next move Black easily forces a draw.} Rf8 31. Ra1 Ne7 32. Rxf8+ Kxf8 33. Rxa5 Rd2 34. Rxa6 Rxd3 35. Ra8+ Nc8 1/2-1/2